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Consequently, several approachesfor characterizing the physical habitat have been pro-. They include hydrologic Richter et al. Forexample, aquatic habitat modelling has, for a number ofyears, been used to provide criteria for riverine habitatenhancement, rehabilitation and restoration. It couplesow properties, such as ow velocity, depth and shearstress, with biological requirements, typically expressedas univariate curves Bjornn and Reiser, ; Payne andAllen, , to dene habitat availability or to quan-tify ow-related ecological functions Escobar-Arias andPasternack, Stream ow properties, in one, twoor three dimensions, can be obtained with eld mea-surements, statistical methods Lamouroux et al.
The choice of a method for characterizing ow propertiesdepends on several factors, which include the processesto be modelled, the questions to be answered and thetemporal and spatial scales of the process and its res-olution.
Paul J. Wood (Author of Hydroecology and Ecohydrology)
Conse-quently, spatially explicit ow models, such as two- orthree-dimensional hydraulic models, may not be neces-sary if eld measurements at several sampling points in ariveror analytical or statistical owmodels canprovide theow eld statistics Lamouroux et al. Conversely,new advances on the riverscape concept emphasize theuse of spatially varying ow characteristics Fausch et al.
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New stream sh management methods requireexplicit habitat mapping Le Pichon et al. Fish behaviour modelling around hydraulic structures Nestler et al. Additionally, spatiallyexplicit models have been shown to provide a more accu-rate statistic of habitat quality, such as WUA values, than1D or non-numerical modelling for aquatic habitat mod-elling e.
Brown and Pasternack, Here, we conne our scope to hydraulic modelling forpredicting ow properties used in ecohydraulics, in itsbroader sense, which encompasses aquatic habitat mod-elling, ecological assessment and the interaction betweenow and organisms. The aim of this chapter is to providethe reader with the basic knowledge and terminology onhydraulic modelling.
In particular, we focus on compu-tational uid dynamics CFD modelling and its appli-cation in ecohydraulics.
This chapter describes the fun-damental equations of CFD, denes their salient pointsand refers the reader to appropriate literature for detailedinformation on discretization e. Peiro and Sherwin,; Hirsch, , numerical techniques e.
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Ferzigerand Peric, , and turbulence closure e. Rodi, Although the basic mechanical principles of riverhydraulics are well established, the complexity of owsin natural streams, whose beds are often permeable,mobile and display irregularity at different scales rang-ing from grain size few millimetres to the distancebetween meanders which could be several hundredmetres , has precluded thedevelopment of analytical solu-tions, except under idealized and simplied conditions Chaudhry, Consequently, computational uid.
The application of CFD in ecohydraulics has beenincreasingly supported by advances in data-acquisitionmethods e. McKean et al.
Ecohydraulics: An Integrated Approach
Here, wedivide the methods for predicting ow properties intofour categories: 1 three-dimensional 3D hydraulicmodels, 2 two-dimensional 2D hydraulic models, 3 one-dimensional 1D hydraulic models and 4 non-numerical hydraulic modelling. The rst threeof these categories are based on spatial informationof the hydraulic modelling in three, two and onedimensions respectively. Our website is secured by bit SSL encryption issued by Verisign Inc, making your shopping at Sapnaonline as secure as possible. If you need any of your orders' to be delivered outside of India, please reach out to us via our contact us page with the product details and delivery location for us to quote you the best possible shipping price.
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Ecohydraulics: An Integrated Approachprovides a research level text which highlights recent developments of this emerging and expanding field. With a focus on interdisciplinary research the text examines: - -the evolution and scope of ecohydraulics -interactions between hydraulics, hydrology, fluvial geomorphology and aquatic ecology -the application of habitat modelling in ecohydraulic studies -state of the art methodological developments and approaches -detailed case studies including fish passage design and the management of environmental flow regimes -research needs and the future of ecohydraulics research The contributions offer broad geographic coverage to encapsulate the wide range of approaches, case studies and methods used to conduct ecohydraulics research.
The book considers a range of spatial and temporal scales of relevance and aquatic organisms ranging from algae and macrophytes to macroinvertebrates and fish. River management and restoration are also considered in detail, making this volume of direct relevance to those concerned with cutting edge research and its application for water resource management. Aimed at academics and postgraduate researchers in departments of physical geography, earth sciences, environmental science, environmental management, civil engineering, biology, zoology, botany and ecology; Ecohydraulics: An Integrated Approach will be of direct relevance to academics, researchers and professionals working in environmental research organisations, national agencies and consultancies.
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Ecohydraulics : an integrated approach
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